article: Lighting and heating
Aquarium light is necessary for several reasons. It stimulates the activity of the fish, gives plants the energy needed for photosynthesis, and ultimately allows the owner to see what happens in the tub. The lighting is generally contained in the aquarium lid. This, in addition to containing lamps and limit excessive evaporation, prevents the poor (and any foreign material) from entering the aquarium, or jump off the fish lovers of adventure. The lighting system can be done with fluorescent tubes or with tungsten lamps. The system allows the use of fluorescent lamps of various kinds and colors: a "daylight" white-hot, light or "solar", or in other different colors that bring out the colors and favor the growth of plants. And 'right to decide the system to be adopted only after evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of both types. The device with tungsten is not expensive, it is easy to install but very expensive operation: the lamps are of short duration and emit much heat. The fluorescent systems are more expensive to purchase, a little 'more complicated to install (as required ignition relay), but less expensive in operation; they last longer and emit less heat. Some aquarists find that a combination of both systems gives the best results for both color and for the development of plants. The amount of light required is approximately 10-15 hours a day, with modifications to suit the one hand the owner of the aquarium and the other to obtain a good growth of plants, without causing an excessive development of algae. The development of algae usually indicates that there is too much light or that there are few plants. Fish are susceptible to shock, and a sudden beam of light, or similarly, the sudden darkness when the lights are turned off may be harmful to certain species is very delicate. It 'a good idea to make sure there is already some lighting in the room before turning the aquarium light, as well as the lighting of the room still take some time, once the lights of the aquarium. As an alternative you can use a dimmer often connected with a clock.
The water heater is made of modern aquariums usually electrically small heaters with glass dip, controlled by thermostats (submersible or external). Heaters are sold with different power (measured in watts) that must be chosen according to the size of the tank, a large heater that can heat rapidly a small pool must always be fitted with thermostat. A small heater will not be able to only heat a large tank, in which case one can use two heaters, each controlled by its own thermostat. According to a rule of thumb it takes 10 watts to heat five gallons of water. For larger tanks you can divide the total watts required between two separate heaters. Remember that the larger the aquarium, the more slowly occurring changes in temperature. There are various types of thermometers for aquarium, but after only a few months to experience the same aquarium owner will be able to assess the water temperature by simply placing the palm of your hand against the glass front.